Data switch relating to drugs at discharge


Treatment discrepancies and medicine errors are frequent in care transitions, together with admission to,1,2 and discharge from hospital,2,3 in addition to switch between hospital items.4 These discrepancies and medicine errors put sufferers susceptible to hostile occasions4,5 which can enhance the danger of medication-related readmission to hospital.6,7 In 2017, the danger related to remedy security in care transitions was globally highlighted when the World Well being Group (WHO) initiated its third international affected person security problem; Treatment With out Hurt, the place care transitions featured as certainly one of three priorities for motion.8

On this word, the Swedish Nationwide Board of Well being and Welfare states the necessity for remedy evaluation among the many aged in addition to remedy reconciliation and data switch of medicines and medicine adjustments in care transitions.9 The aim is to make sure quick and correct updates on drug adjustments made throughout a hospital keep in addition to ample follow-up after discharge.

In southern Sweden, the place this examine came about, the present regional tips state that remedy reconciliation ought to be carried out in all sufferers upon admission to hospital.10 A discharge abstract with a drugs report, which ought to be understandable to a lay particular person, ought to be handed to the affected person upon discharge.11,12 Its function is to tell sufferers of occasions occurring in the course of the hospital keep in addition to adjustments made to drugs, why these adjustments have been made and the plan for follow-up.11 The discharge abstract also needs to be transferred to the subsequent caregiver together with a medical case historical past.12 Additionally included within the discharge abstract is a drugs listing, mechanically derived from the digital medical report.11 This listing ought to be up to date earlier than handing the knowledge to the affected person and/or sending it to the subsequent caregiver.

It has been proven that writing a discharge abstract with remedy report, in accordance with these tips, and handing it to the affected person and subsequent caregiver at discharge can considerably lower the variety of discrepancies between drugs lists after discharge.13 Higher nonetheless, it has additionally been proven to lower well being care consumption after transition from hospital to major care.5 Sadly, research present that discharge summaries are sometimes inadequately written and transferred.3,14–16 Despite the fact that normal practitioners agree that the discharge abstract and medicine report might be of nice worth,15 they have an inclination to mistrust the knowledge given, particularly the drugs listing.14,15 Related experiences have been reported in different research.17–19

Understanding what underlies these issues of suboptimal data switch relating to drugs at discharge may result in the understanding of learn how to enhance the method. There are some earlier research exploring physicians’ perceptions on the discharging course of,17,20–23 nevertheless, none together with Swedish hospital physicians.

Therefore, the purpose of this examine was to analyze the experiences and perceptions of Swedish hospital physicians relating to the discharging course of. The main target was documentation and data switch of medicines and medicine adjustments at discharge.


Qualitative Method and Analysis Paradigm

The objective of the examine was to know the physicians’ experiences of the discharging course of, quite than to establish the “true nature” of it. A qualitative design with focus group discussions was used since that is an acceptable methodology to make use of when learning experiences.24 In a spotlight group individuals who share comparable experiences are gathered and focus on their emotions, ideas, and perceptions on these experiences.25 As well as, focus group individuals work together with one another, which may elicit associations and creativeness. Thus, the group dynamics contribute to creating tales and including richness to the fabric.24,25 The interplay between individuals is facilitated by the moderator and the interview information used and the individuals’ ideas and perceptions are collected and additional analyzed to explain the phenomenon below examine.25 Qualitative content material evaluation is appropriate for analyzing information from focus teams.24,25

In reporting this examine, the Requirements for Reporting Qualitative Analysis (SRQR) have been used.26

Researcher Traits and Reflexivity

The primary creator and moderator of the main focus group discussions (MG) is a scientific pharmacist with intensive expertise in working in the direction of lowering remedy associated hurt in a hospital setting. MG had not labored repeatedly with any of the individuals earlier than the examine however had met a few of them briefly within the position of scientific pharmacist and/or educator. MG had no authority over the individuals.

Observing the discussions was AB, a normal practitioner who has the angle of the receiving finish of data transferred from the hospital at discharge. AB has intensive expertise in qualitative analysis and has been concerned in a number of qualitative research involving focus group discussions and qualitative content material evaluation. AB had not beforehand met any of the individuals within the examine and had no authority over them.

Reflexivity was maintained all through the examine by the researchers constantly discussing and difficult established assumptions. As well as, each researchers stored reflective notes all through the examine.


The examine was carried out at two hospitals in a area in southern Sweden. Hospital 1 is a bigger emergency hospital whereas Hospital 2 is a smaller, native hospital.

Digital Medical Information

The digital medical data within the regional hospitals are at present separate from these in major care, which may complicate data switch at transitions of care. To complicate issues additional, nursing take care of the aged, of their houses or nursing houses, is supplied by the native municipality utilizing one more digital medical report. In aged sufferers, particularly these in want of house care or residing in a nursing house, multi-dose drug allotting is sort of frequent. It is a system involving machine-packaging of the drugs the affected person ought to take at any specific time of day. For these sufferers, all prescriptions are collected within the Pascal system the place adjustments to prescriptions (initiating remedy, altering doses, and discontinuing remedy) also needs to be carried out. This technique is utilized by each hospital and first care physicians, however it’s neither related to the hospital nor the first care digital medical report, thus additional growing the danger of remedy discrepancies in transitions of care.


Graduates from medical college in Sweden don’t instantly obtain a physician’s license. That is earned by means of a supervised internship of 1.5 years throughout which the intern physicians are stationed at totally different departments on the hospital in addition to in major, and psychiatric care. Earlier than beginning the internship, it is not uncommon to work for a while as an unlicensed doctor. After incomes the physician’s license, physicians can begin their specialist coaching as a resident doctor. The present period of the specialty coaching is a minimal of 5 years.

On this examine, resident, and intern physicians (together with unlicensed physicians) have been chosen as individuals as they’re those primarily concerned within the discharging course of on the healthcare wards.


Three focus teams with 4–6 individuals per event have been deliberate with a fourth to be held in case information saturation was not reached after three.

Initially, interns and residents in each surgical procedure and inner drugs have been meant to be included within the examine. Nevertheless, as a result of Covid-19 pandemic of 2020, the surgical interns and residents couldn’t attend. Because the focus of the examine was documentation and data switch relating to remedy and medicine adjustments, the analysis group determined that physicians from inner drugs have been enough as individuals.

The sampling technique was purposive aiming at a mixture of female and male interns and residents from the 2 included hospitals. Resident and intern physicians on the hospitals have been knowledgeable concerning the examine and invited to take part. The objective was to kind focus teams with individuals conversant in one another and comfy with sharing their experiences and perceptions. Therefore, the primary focus group (FG 1) was shaped from these and out there at Hospital 1 whereas a division secretary in Hospital 2 helped with recruiting and scheduling individuals to the second and third teams (FG 2 and three).

In whole 15 physicians, distributed as proven in Desk 1, participated within the three focus group discussions. There have been 4–6 individuals per group. In whole 10 feminine and 5 male physicians participated.

Desk 1 Distribution of Individuals within the Focus Group Discussions

Knowledge Assortment

The three focus teams have been convened from September by means of November 2020. The primary focus group dialogue was held face-to-face in a gathering room at Hospital 1, which was conveniently situated for all individuals. On account of Covid-19 restrictions bodily conferences weren’t allowed in late 2020 and the remaining two focus teams have been held as digital conferences. All of the discussions have been audio recorded.

The primary focus group dialogue lasted roughly 90 minutes whereas the second and third lasted roughly 60 minutes. A semi-structured interview information in Swedish was used to facilitate the discussions and to take care of consistency all through the main focus teams. The information was primarily based on earlier data of issues within the discharging course of and began off with the set off query:

Research present that major care physicians don’t at all times belief the knowledge within the discharge abstract, particularly the drugs listing. What are your perceptions on the discharging course of generally and the documentation of medicines and medicine adjustments particularly? What are the obstacles and alternatives as you see it?

The information included normal areas of curiosity in addition to a guidelines of particular factors and probes to carry up as wanted, to make sure that related points have been touched upon. Between discussions, the information was adjusted in accordance with data supplied by the individuals. Nevertheless, the overall areas of curiosity have been maintained all through the examine. Therefore, the event principally included specs within the guidelines and addition of probes, quite than adjustments to and/or additions of questions.

Since no new analytical data had emerged after the third focus group dialogue, the researchers MG, AB, and PM discovered that the examine supplied sufficient data on the topic, therefore sampling saturation was reached.

Knowledge Processing and Evaluation

Knowledge from the discussions have been transcribed verbatim by a impartial skilled transcriber. The transcripts have been reviewed by the primary creator (MG) to make sure that they have been correct and mirrored the totality of the discussions, together with pauses, punctuations, and non-verbal information. Anonymized transcribed information was used for information evaluation. Solely the researchers concerned in analyzing the info (MG, AB, PM, AKE and ÅB) had entry to the uncooked information.

MG and AB met repeatedly (through video convention and face-to-face conferences) to evaluation, focus on, and are available to a consensus on the fabric. By means of an iterative means of studying, discussing, and rereading the fabric, preliminary themes have been recognized and consensually validated. The fabric was analyzed to be able to establish self-standing that means items regarding the purpose of the examine. The items or segments have been coded and arranged into classes all through the evaluation. Moreover, exemplar quotes illustrating every class have been chosen and classes have been additional explored. Lastly, a theme protecting the findings of the examine was outlined. PM, AKE, and ÅB carried out a confirmatory evaluation which concluded that the principle findings have been supported by information. Reflective notes have been maintained to trace the group’s creating ideas. Examples of the analytical course of are proven in Desk 2.

Desk 2 Examples of the Analytical Course of


The hospital physicians described numerous obstacles in the middle of updating and transferring data on drugs at discharge. These obstacles constituted three classes and 6 sub-categories as proven in Determine 1. Classes and sub-categories are described under with consultant quotations.

A central theme emerged throughout evaluation. This theme encompasses how physicians do their finest regardless of tough circumstances. As one doctor put it: “I feel we must be humble to the truth that we’re solely human.” (FG 1)

Determine 1 Central theme, classes, and sub-categories. Three classes with two subcategories every have been recognized. A central theme “We’re solely human” encompasses how physicians do their finest regardless of tough circumstances.



Totally different Techniques

The switch of an accurate drugs listing at discharge from hospital requires an up to date drugs listing at admission. Individuals reported that the truth that hospital and first care use totally different digital medical data makes remedy reconciliation at admission tough. Individuals expressed frustration at not having the ability to simply entry the medical data in major care, or to know if the drugs listing within the hospital medical report had been up to date.

… after which it’s simply that we don’t have the identical medical report as major care, so we have no idea why the affected person is prescribed ramipril as a substitute of one thing else … (FG 1)

The individuals expressed the idea {that a} frequent digital medical report would enhance affected person security and reduce the danger of remedy discrepancies in care transitions. This data would then be instantly out there to the first care doctor as a substitute of it being printed, signed, posted and, finally, delivered. This process can take weeks, in accordance with the individuals’ expertise.

In sufferers with multi-dose drug allotting, hospital and first care do, actually, use the identical system (Pascal) for prescribing which was thought-about optimistic by the individuals.

The idea that you’re in the identical system because the colleagues in major care facilitates tremendously. You immediately see what they’ve carried out, and so they immediately see what we’ve carried out, and I feel that is the principle motive why it seems like errors are rarer (in these sufferers). (FG 1)

Difficult Software program and Dysfunctional {Hardware}

There may be, actually, a nationwide system wherein one can entry major care medical data from a hospital laptop (and vice versa). Equally, there’s a nationwide system wherein one can discover out the prescriptions sufferers have stuffed within the final 15 months. Utilizing these programs requires affected person consent and a pc that’s out there and features. Therefore, doing so was thought-about difficult and time-consuming by the individuals.

It may be tough … typically you attempt to log in and it doesn’t work, and it’s a must to begin over … and that’s annoying. So, I are likely to solely log in if there’s actually one thing … I feel it could have been used much more if the knowledge had been extra organized and available. (FG 2)

Physicians expressed hope for future IT-systems to be extra accessible and person pleasant.

I hope that the objective is to make it so simple as attainable. You possibly can incorporate plenty of fancy features but when nobody understands learn how to use them they won’t be used. And that’s not why you develop into a doctor; to have the ability to use laptop programs in a versatile manner. (FG 2)

Work Group and Routines

Time and Continuity

Treatment reconciliation will not be restricted to discovering out what drugs the affected person is prescribed. It additionally consists of figuring out what the affected person is definitely taking. This requires speaking to the affected person and systematically going by means of the drugs listing, discovering out what drugs they’re taking and the way. Within the individuals’ expertise this takes time, which is scarce within the emergency room, resulting in remedy reconciliation being down prioritized.

… it turns into a matter of medical precedence. Typically there’s a bigger medical danger for the affected person to attend to be admitted than to state that “I attempted to carry out a drugs reconciliation, however I didn’t have the knowledge wanted and I’ve not been in a position to entry it, this wants extra time, and I don’t have that point”. (FG1)

If remedy reconciliation will not be accomplished within the emergency room the ward doctor ought to full it the subsequent day. Sadly, the individuals’ reported that the ward physicians are additionally below strain and have numerous duties to carry out in a restricted period of time. There may be additionally a scarcity of doctor continuity that complicates issues additional and makes the each day duties much more time consuming.

If you happen to had had continuity issues would have gone rather a lot sooner and each affected person dialog throughout rounds would have gone sooner since you’d each know that this was mentioned yesterday and there’s no must undergo it intimately once more right this moment. (FG 2)

In some wards scientific pharmacists assist with remedy reconciliation. To have one other skilled, with a distinct competency and strategy, who can totally examine the affected person’s use of medicines, was enormously appreciated by the taking part physicians.

Think about having that assist in the emergency room, somebody with solely that activity (to carry out remedy reconciliation). That will be nice … (FG 1)

One of many main issues recognized by the individuals was, actually, that the drugs listing used in the course of the hospital keep has discrepancies relating to what the affected person was utilizing earlier than admission. Individuals expressed concern that this leaves sufferers susceptible to remedy associated issues.

The foremost downside, when I’m on the ward discharging a affected person, is the knowledge from admission. That’s the place you discover these issues with a beforehand doubled dose of ACE inhibitor and, at admission, we thought we doubled it. However we’ve truly simply prescribed the identical dose because the one they’d earlier than admission. (FG 1)

These discrepancies have been there all through your entire hospital keep resulting in additional issues at discharge. If that is the remedy the affected person has obtained in the course of the hospital keep, ought to it’s continued or modified at discharge? If modified it ought to be evaluated, and the affected person would profit from staying on the hospital for a number of extra days. Sadly, that is hardly ever a chance. Physicians expressed feeling annoyed and crestfallen as they discover that there isn’t any actual resolution to the issues they face repeatedly.

There isn’t a floor to construct on whenever you sit there with the affected person considering “you’re able to go house”, no real floor to construct on, and that makes me actually unhappy. (FG 1)

The individuals reported that discharge and all that it entails in type of documentation and data switch is usually rushed. That is primarily as a consequence of municipal care demanding sufferers to be discharged at a sure time or a scarcity of hospital beds. The individuals additional reported that many different pressing duties must be executed within the wards earlier than lunchtime, leaving them ready the place they have to prioritize. They want to decide on between taking good care of sufferers within the ward or totally going by means of documentation to compose an accurate discharge abstract and medicine report.

… you wish to do it proper when you’ve the time and chance, in fact, however when the strain is on, even when we all know that we’re imagined to do sure issues, deviations enhance because the strain is rising. (FG 1)

Documentation and Data Switch

If remedy reconciliation will not be accomplished within the emergency room the admitting doctor ought to clarify to the doctor on the ward that the drugs listing wants reviewing. The routine is that this ought to be documented in a particular word, stating if remedy reconciliation is accomplished – sure/no, within the digital medical report. Nevertheless, individuals identified that this isn’t at all times sufficiently carried out, neither is this word adequately learn by the ward doctor.

I write sure or no relying on whether or not I’ve carried out it, however my intestine feeling is that this word will get misplaced within the whizz of all the pieces else and that fairly a big proportion of my colleagues don’t give a da … ignores it, to rephrase … (FG 1)

Individuals additional conveyed that since this word will not be precisely used many physicians report the necessity for finishing the remedy reconciliation on the ward within the affected person evaluation word as a substitute, thus hoping that the ward doctor reads it and acts upon it.

To have the ability to clearly inform sufferers of adjustments made to their drugs at discharge these adjustments must be adequately documented within the medical report all through the hospital keep. That is particularly necessary since doctor continuity is scarce within the wards. Individuals reported that it’s fairly frequent that sufferers are discharged by a brand new attending doctor who has by no means met them. To assemble a discharge data with remedy report below these circumstances takes time, particularly with out distinct documentation of adjustments made.

The issue as I see it with documenting within the medical report is that the knowledge is tough to seek out and even if you happen to discover it there’s nothing confirming that that is the one remedy adjustment made. (FG 1)

Therefore, individuals conveyed that they most popular to make use of the drugs listing within the digital medical report as a supply of data when assembling the remedy report. Even when this, too, is tough to overview, as a consequence of generic adjustments and lengthy hospital stays, they thought-about it to supply a clearer image of remedy adjustments made than notes within the medical report itself.

Many occasions, follow-up after discharge is required. If that is so a referral ought to be despatched to the subsequent caregiver. Sadly, individuals reported that this isn’t at all times sufficiently carried out, thus risking that the difficulty will not be correctly taken care of. Additional, they identified that it isn’t at all times clear to the discharging doctor what ought to be followed-up or by whom.

There isn’t a straight definition relating to what ought to be taken over by major care and what you must deal with your self, and the ideas on this matter differs between colleagues. (FG 1)


Information and Training

Individuals expressed that a number of the issues recognized relating to documentation and data switch might be resolved by enhancing physicians’ schooling within the IT-systems used. Such schooling has been integrated within the internship for a while, however individuals expressed concern that schooling will not be at all times supplied for unlicensed physicians, working earlier than their internship. Additional, updating data within the IT-systems used isn’t prioritized for extra skilled physicians.

In my expertise senior colleagues don’t get the identical steady schooling in these administrative duties, as us newly graduated. Many occasions, I’ve skilled that if I’m in want of assist, with Pascal or adjusting drugs, it’s been laborious to get that assist from a senior colleague. (FG 3)

Failure to supply schooling will not be the one trigger for not studying the IT-systems. Individuals expressed that lack of motivation is one other issue. That is typically attributable to a way that there are too many technical duties to deal with.

… however others shut that door of their thoughts and assume that this isn’t a part of my job, and it provides as much as there being too many technical duties to deal with … (FG 1)

Additional, individuals reported that they’ve skilled a sense of aversion in the direction of the IT-systems used amongst fellow physicians. One participant expressed concern that such aversion in the direction of the IT-systems may lower the motivation to discover ways to use them correctly, thus jeopardizing remedy security.

Understanding and Duty

Since doctor continuity will not be at all times attainable, data continuity in medical data is significant. To attain data continuity, it can be crucial that physicians perceive the results of not following routines regarding documentation. Therefore, perception relating to the state of affairs and routines of the subsequent caregiver was thought-about necessary by the individuals. They believed that if the emergency room physicians have been conversant in the routines within the ward, they is likely to be extra thorough in going by means of the drugs listing earlier than admission. This might lower the danger of sufferers receiving drugs that, for instance, shouldn’t be given below the present circumstances.

It’s necessary to know that whenever you activate the drugs listing you prescribe these drugs. It’s not an administrative activity and not using a function, however quite an necessary a part of the sufferers’ take care of the subsequent 24 hours. And I’m afraid our opinions differ on this matter. (FG 1)

Equally, individuals expressed the idea that if the discharging physicians have been conversant in the state of affairs and routines in major care, their documentation and switch of data relating to remedy adjustments made and follow-up wanted may enhance.

You realize who has by no means set foot in major care earlier than working within the hospital. They will simply ship referrals phrased “grateful for follow-up”, and not using a particular query and never together with particular data. And that won’t be enormously appreciated! (FG 1)

Individuals additional claimed that physicians must take accountability for the drugs listing and take cost of it. This consists of terminating prescriptions which can be not legitimate in addition to clearing out doublets and generics. Additional, indications and directions about drugs ought to be clarified in order that the sufferers perceive them. Making these changes would facilitate for the affected person in addition to for the subsequent caregiver.

The attitude wants to enhance so that each doctor feels extra answerable for the drugs listing whereas the affected person is hospitalized, ideally already at admission. (FG 1)

Nevertheless, individuals reported that this isn’t at all times carried out, particularly by insecure, unlicensed physicians and interns who could not have the self-reliance to make such adjustments to prescriptions made by others. Additional, individuals expressed issues that these inexperienced physicians could generally really feel reluctant to ask for assist from their attending doctor.

As a specialist you don’t at all times assume to ask “are you able to deal with prescribing drugs within the digital medical report” as a result of you then really feel obliged to ask “are you aware learn how to dictate, are you aware learn how to … ” and so forth. You presume that they let you know in the event that they have no idea, however everybody could not have the braveness to take action. (FG 1)

Writing the discharge abstract, letting the affected person learn about adjustments made to drugs and why, was thought-about necessary by the individuals. Nevertheless, they expressed issues that the knowledge given is usually insufficient and that some physicians are having bother utilizing on a regular basis language. They feared that this will trigger compliance points in sufferers who don’t perceive why the drugs prescribed are necessary for them to take.

Typically I discover that we use an excessive amount of medical jargon in order that the affected person doesn’t perceive, and, at house, they dismiss the knowledge and cease taking the drugs … (FG 3)

Affected person/Subsequent of Kin

Offering Data

In compiling data on drugs, the affected person is usually the important thing supply. Sadly, within the hospital, sufferers will not be at all times in a state the place they will present this data in a coherent manner. Usually, they’ve low cognitive margins to start with however even when this isn’t the case, they’re in poor health and in a traumatic state of affairs. The physicians reported difficulties in retrieving appropriate data on drugs from sufferers below such circumstances.

The affected person will not be fairly there cognitively and that goes for the younger who’re in poor health in addition to the outdated. They’re in shock, have a fever, really feel sick … (FG 1)

Physicians additional expressed that, in some circumstances, the retrieval of an accurate drugs listing is hindered by different components. Some sufferers are so reluctant to disturb the employees that they don’t inform, even when they obtain the improper drugs. Additionally, some sufferers are unwilling to confess to dangerous compliance, risking that necessary medical choices are primarily based on false data. Additional, in accordance with the individuals, some sufferers merely can’t keep in mind their drugs and don’t have a subsequent of kin current to help.

… certain, we’ve our activity at first of the hospital keep, to reconcile the drugs listing, however generally it’s the affected person … We have to remove this as finest we will, however I feel we must be humble to the truth that we’re solely human. (FG 1)

Understanding Data

Within the individuals’ expertise, even when the discharge abstract, remedy report, and drugs listing are appropriate and informative, the affected person doesn’t at all times perceive. Typically subsequent of kin may help. Nevertheless, in the course of the Covid-19 pandemic subsequent of kin weren’t allowed within the wards, making it tougher for the frailer sufferers.

Earlier than Corona subsequent of kin have been generally there after I talked to the affected person relating to the discharge data, and I feel that’s necessary. Sufferers are drained, and so they can miss data. (FG 3)

The taking part physicians identified that even when they fight laborious to simplify data for the sufferers there are limits to what could be carried out. Even when a number of generic names are listed on the discharge abstract and it’s clearly acknowledged on new prescriptions that this remedy is to exchange one other, one can’t management sufferers’ remedy consumption after discharge.

It’s a distinct world on the market and prescriptions you fill on the pharmacy could be totally different from these within the cabinet. That makes it additional necessary that they get an up to date drugs listing and perceive that that is the listing to comply with. (FG 1)


A number of obstacles in transferring data relating to drugs at discharge have been recognized. Points relating to infrastructure are seldom attainable for the person doctor to affect. Nevertheless, a number of points described on this qualitative examine are attainable to behave upon. In doing so remedy errors in care transitions may lower and data switch at discharge, relating to drugs and medicine adjustments, may enhance.

There are earlier research investigating physicians’ perceptions on the discharging course of,17,20–23 a few of which report outcomes just like ours. In 2017 Pinelli et al20 recognized 5 major limitations in a qualitative examine together with suppliers in addition to sufferers. These limitations included system insufficiencies, lack of know-how one another’s roles, information-communication breakdowns, patient-perspective points, and poor collaboration processes. Related limitations have been recognized by Manias et al21 in a qualitative examine together with sufferers and members of the family in addition to physicians, nurses, and pharmacists.

Additionally, within the present examine, one of many main obstacles recognized was the infrastructure and system insufficiencies. As reported by Pinelli et al,20 system insufficiencies and obstacles associated to infrastructure are sometimes out of the physicians’ quick management. These obstacles could be IT-related, resembling poor usability, time-consuming information entry, or lack of ability to trade well being data between digital medical data.22 They will also be associated to routines and work group, resembling insufficient documentation, time shortage, lack of continuity, and directions not being comprehensible to sufferers.20,21 All these obstacles have been additionally recognized by the individuals within the present examine.

Utilizing totally different digital medical data in hospital and first care was thought-about a serious impediment by the individuals on this examine and comparable outcomes have been beforehand recognized.15,23 Discrepancies between drugs lists within the hospital and people within the major care digital medical data are frequent.3,20,21,23 This requires performing remedy reconciliation at admission to hospital however since time is scarce within the emergency room in addition to within the wards, this isn’t at all times prioritized.21 Additional, as doctor continuity will not be at all times attainable, and discharges are sometimes rushed, remedy reconciliation in the course of the hospital keep or at discharge will not be at all times attainable both, as acknowledged by the individuals on this examine. The truth that discharge, with all that it entails, is usually carried out by the least skilled physicians will not be serving to this matter. Therefore, discrepancies are sometimes current all through your entire hospital keep and included within the discharge data27 as skilled by the individuals on this examine. This poses a danger to affected person security after discharge. Not having the ability to ship high-quality care has been beforehand recognized to trigger skilled dissatisfaction amongst physicians.22 Equally, individuals on this examine expressed emotions of frustration and resignation in the direction of their state of affairs.

Common practitioners within the area the place this examine came about have beforehand expressed mistrust within the discharge abstract, particularly the drugs listing.15 They’ve additional reported that their belief would enhance if it was acknowledged within the discharge abstract {that a} scientific pharmacist had been concerned in remedy reconciliation and evaluation in the course of the hospital keep.15

Involving scientific pharmacists in remedy reconciliation has been beforehand recognized as an appreciated technique to enhance the discharging course of.20,28 Medical pharmacists are seen as crucial companions to facilitate protected and efficient remedy administration in addition to to lower remedy errors and medicine associated issues.29,30 Individuals within the present examine equally expressed appreciation in the direction of scientific pharmacists serving to with remedy reconciliation and evaluation within the wards. They additional wished for growth of the service presently supplied within the included hospitals.

With the intention to totally reconcile a affected person’s drugs listing, it is very important know what the affected person is definitely taking.28 Sadly, sufferers will not be at all times effectively sufficient to reply questions, not keen to confess to poor compliance, and never in a position to keep in mind drugs used.20,21 Seeing that the employees is harassed may render sufferers unwilling to provoke dialog resulting in them not telling, even when they’ve obtained the improper drugs.21 Subsequent of kin can generally be of help however will not be at all times available.21 This challenge was additionally reported by individuals within the current examine. Involving scientific pharmacists on this course of may assist as sufferers are sometimes extra susceptible to admit non-adherence to somebody apart from the doctor.28

It has been beforehand proven that sufferers typically have poor recall of discharge directions.31 Additional, sufferers have expressed that data given at discharge is usually insufficient and laborious to know.17,21,27 This may trigger uncertainty and nervousness in addition to compliance points,17,21,27 a priority equally reported by individuals within the current examine.

Unintentional, in addition to intentional, non-adherence is frequent after discharge.27 To keep away from this, improved communication at discharge is necessary.27 Once more, involving scientific pharmacists may assist.16,27,32 In 2016 Daliri et al32 confirmed {that a} pharmacist-led transitional care program decreased the quantity of remedy associated issues after discharge. Other than remedy reconciliation at admission and discharge, this system included scientific pharmacists informing sufferers of medicines and medicine adjustments at discharge.32

Within the current examine, taking part physicians raised issues about not having the ability to affect what sufferers are literally taking put up discharge. Phone follow-up or house visits a number of days after discharge have been beforehand recognized as methods to bridge the transition from hospital to house.33 Such follow-up appointments, carried out by physicians, nurses, or scientific pharmacists, gives an opportunity to take care of any affected person questions relating to drugs or remedy adjustments. This may lower the danger of hostile occasions33 and medicine associated issues.32

It has been beforehand acknowledged that poor usability of digital medical data is a distinguished supply of dissatisfaction amongst physicians.22 Equally, individuals on this examine expressed issues that the motivation to study new programs is missing, particularly among the many extra skilled physicians. Therefore, even when the IT-systems on this area enhance it can be crucial that physicians’ attitudes towards them additionally enhance and that they study to make use of them as finest they will. Training must be prioritized and constantly up to date to attain higher use of the IT-systems used.

Just like the outcomes of Pinelli et al20 individuals on this examine recognized lack of routines and ineffective communication as obstacles within the discharging course of. Routines relating to documentation must be distinct, recognized and, finally, {followed} by all. Additional, physicians should pay attention to and perceive penalties that consequence from them not following these routines.

As recognized by the individuals on this examine, not understanding one another’s roles or work conditions can result in duplication of labor or failure to finish pertinent duties.20 Therefore, having the ability to put your self within the subsequent caregivers’ footwear and see the subsequent step within the affected person’s steady care is important if wanting to enhance the discharging course of. In doing so data continuity might be improved and the danger of hostile occasions in transitions of care may lower.

Strengths and Weaknesses

We used a number of strategies to boost trustworthiness on this examine:

Extended engagement was utilized as we (MG and AB) used a semi-structured interview information primarily based on earlier data of issues within the discharging course of. Utilizing this information, we requested the individuals a number of distinct questions relating to matters associated to discharge. We additionally requested follow-up questions and inspired individuals to help their statements with examples.

Persistent remark was secured as we (MG and AB) initially learn and reread the info and analyzed the main focus group discussions independently after which we in contrast interpretations. If interpretations differed, they have been mentioned till essentially the most appropriate interpretation was discovered, which finest represented the that means of the info. We (MG and AB) met repeatedly all through the method of the examine and minutes from these conferences have been mirrored upon as was the event of the examine.

Investigator triangulation was utilized by together with researchers with differing analysis backgrounds and information triangulation was secured as the assorted datasets that emerged all through the evaluation course of, i e, the uncooked materials, preliminary themes and codes, and reflective notes, have been all used for evaluation.

One other power on this examine was together with individuals with current expertise from working with admission and discharge of sufferers. With the processes and perceived obstacles contemporary of their minds, the taking part physicians have been effectively suited to contribute to a wealthy materials.

The truth that the primary focus group consisted of residents solely whereas the opposite two teams included interns as effectively might be thought-about a power in addition to a weak point. The general sense was that the primary focus group resulted in a thicker materials, which might be as a result of individuals within the first focus group being extra skilled. Nevertheless, it is also as a result of the primary dialogue was carried out face-to-face whereas the second and third focus teams have been carried out as digital conferences. The digital convention setting could be inhibiting however was, sadly, a should as a result of Covid-19 pandemic.

Physicians from surgical specialties didn’t take part on this examine which can, maybe, have influenced the outcomes. Nevertheless, because the processes of remedy reconciliation and switch of data in care transitions are the identical no matter specialty, we imagine that the outcomes of this examine are transferable to all specialties in addition to to comparable contexts.


There are a number of obstacles in the middle of transferring data relating to drugs at discharge. Points relating to infrastructure, resembling suboptimal IT-systems, time shortage, and lack of continuity, are seldom attainable for the person doctor to affect. Nevertheless, a number of points raised by the physicians taking part on this qualitative examine are attainable to behave upon. Establishing routines and ensuring they’re recognized and {followed} by all may, presumably, assist enhance data continuity. Additional, offering, and prioritizing schooling in IT-systems used and ensuring physicians take accountability for the drugs listing may, presumably, assist lower remedy errors and enhance data switch at discharge. Involving scientific pharmacists might be of nice worth in these actions. Additional research are wanted to confirm these hypotheses.


WHO, World Well being Group.

Knowledge Sharing Assertion

The information that help the findings of this examine can be found from the corresponding creator on cheap request. The information will not be publicly out there as a consequence of privateness or moral restrictions.

Ethics Approval and Knowledgeable Consent

The examine was carried out in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.33

Moral approval was utilized for on the Swedish Ethics Evaluate Authority. The Swedish Ethics Evaluate Authority assessed that moral approval was not required because the examine didn’t embrace any intervention coated within the Swedish Ethics Evaluate Act. The advisory comment from the Ethics Evaluate Authority (Registry quantity 2020-01581) acknowledged that there have been no moral objections to the examine.

Knowledgeable consent, together with consent for publication of anonymized responses, was obtained from all individuals. To make sure that individuals have been totally conscious of what their participation implied (i e the dangers and advantages related, the steps and precautions taken to reduce dangers and the plan to make use of the info), they have been requested to learn an data letter describing this stuff earlier than signing the knowledgeable consent kind. Participation was voluntary and the collected information can’t be linked to the individuals.


We want to thank the physicians who selected to participate within the focus group discussions for his or her time and contribution. We’re additional indebted to Patrick Reilly for his experience and recommendation in modifying the manuscript, to Lena Lennartsson for transcription of the uncooked information, and to Jazmin Rosberg Tomasino for serving to out with sampling and scheduling individuals at Hospital 2.


This examine was supported by a grant from the ALF funding from Area Skåne, awarded to PM. The examine was additional supported by grants from FoU Kryh and Södra Sjukvårdsregionen, awarded to MG. The funding physique had no position within the design of the examine, the gathering, evaluation, or interpretation of information or in writing the manuscript.


Mrs Maria Glans stories grants from FoU Kryh, grants from Södra sjukvårdsregionen, in the course of the conduct of the examine. The authors declare that they don’t have any competing pursuits.


1. Tam VC, Knowles SR, Cornish PL, High quality N, Marchesano R, Etchells EE. Frequency, sort and scientific significance of remedy historical past errors at admission to hospital: a scientific evaluation. CMAJ. 2005;173(5):510–515. doi:10.1503/cmaj.045311

2. Midlov P, Bergkvist A, Bondesson A, Eriksson T, Hoglund P. Treatment errors when transferring aged sufferers between major well being care and hospital care. Pharm World Sci. 2005;27(2):116–120. doi:10.1007/s11096-004-3705-y

3. Caleres G, Modig S, Midlöv P, Chalmers J, Bondesson Å. Treatment discrepancies in discharge summaries and related danger components for aged sufferers with many medication. Medication Actual World Outcomes. 2020 Mar;7(1):53–62. doi:10.1007/s40801-019-00176-5

4. Lee JY, Leblanc Ok, Fernandes OA, et al. Treatment reconciliation throughout inner hospital switch and affect of computerized prescriber order entry. Ann Pharmacother. 2010;44(12):1887–1895. doi:10.1345/aph.1P314

5. Midlov P, Deierborg E, Holmdahl L, Hoglund P, Eriksson T. Medical outcomes from the usage of remedy report when aged sufferers are discharged from hospital. Pharm World Sci. 2008;30(6):840–845. doi:10.1007/s11096-008-9236-1

6. Witherington EM, Pirzada OM, Avery AJ. Communication gaps and readmissions to hospital for sufferers aged 75 years and older: observational examine. Qual Saf Well being Care. 2008;17(1):71–75. doi:10.1136/qshc.2006.020842

7. Ekerstad N, Bylin Ok, Karlson BW. Early rehospitalizations of frail aged sufferers – the position of medicines: a scientific, potential, observational trial. Drug Healthc Affected person Saf. 2017;9:77–88. doi:10.2147/DHPS.S139237

8. Donaldson LJ, Kelley ET, Dhingra-Kumar N, Kieny MP, Sheikh A. Treatment with out hurt: WHO’s third international affected person security problem. Lancet. 2017;389(10080):1680–1681. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31047-4

9. Swedish Nationwide Board of Well being and Welfare. Directives and normal recommendation on prescription and dealing with of medicines in well being care. 2017.

10. Division of medicines administration and informatics in Skåne county. Instructions for remedy reconciliation and evaluation in Skåne County. Area Skåne; 2014.

11. Division of Medicines Administration and Informatics in Skåne county. Discharge abstract tips. Area Skåne; 2013.

12. Division of medicines administration and informatics in Skåne county. Routine and steerage for collaboration at discharge from hospital care. Area Skåne; 2020.

13. Midlov P, Holmdahl L, Eriksson T, et al. Treatment report reduces variety of remedy errors when aged sufferers are discharged from hospital. Pharm World Sci. 2008;30(1):92–98. doi:10.1007/s11096-007-9149-4

14. Caleres G, Bondesson Å, Midlöv P, Modig S. Aged in danger in care transitions When discharge summaries are poorly transferred and used –a descriptive examine. BMC Well being Serv Res. 2018;18(1):770. doi:10.1186/s12913-018-3581-0

15. Caleres G, Strandberg EL, Bondesson A, Midlov P, Modig S. Medication, mistrust and dialogue -A spotlight group examine with Swedish GPs on discharge abstract use in major care. BMC Fam Pract. 2018;19(1):127. doi:10.1186/s12875-018-0804-8

16. Kogut SJ, Goldstein E, Charbonneau C, Jackson A, Patry G. Enhancing remedy administration after a hospitalization with pharmacist house visits and digital private well being data: an observational examine. Drug Healthc Affected person Saf. 2014;6:1–6. doi:10.2147/DHPS.S56574

17. Hesselink G, Schoonhoven L, Plas M, Wollersheim H, Vernooij-Dassen M. High quality and security of hospital discharge: a examine on experiences and perceptions of sufferers, family and care suppliers. Int J Qual Well being Care. 2013;25(1):66–74. doi:10.1093/intqhc/mzs066

18. Robelia PM, Kashiwagi DT, Jenkins SM, Newman JS, Sorita A. Data switch and the hospital discharge abstract: nationwide major care supplier views of challenges and alternatives. J Am Board Fam Med. 2017;30(6):758–765. doi:10.3122/jabfm.2017.06.170194

19. Kripalani S, LeFevre F, Phillips CO, Williams MV, Basaviah P, Baker DW. Deficits in communication and data switch between hospital-based and first care physicians: implications for affected person security and continuity of care. JAMA. 2007;297(8):831–841. doi:10.1001/jama.297.8.831

20. Pinelli V, Stuckey HL, Gonzalo JD. Exploring challenges within the affected person’s discharge course of from the inner drugs service: a qualitative examine of sufferers’ and suppliers’ perceptions. J Interprof Care. 2017;31(5):566–574. doi:10.1080/13561820.2017.1322562

21. Manias E, Gerdtz M, Williams A, Dooley M. Complexities of medicines security: speaking about managing medicines at transition factors of care throughout emergency departments and medical wards. J Clin Nurs. 2015;24(1–2):69–80. doi:10.1111/jocn.12685

22. Friedberg MW, Chen PG, Van Busum KR, et al. Components affecting doctor skilled satisfaction and their implications for affected person care, well being programs, and well being coverage. Rand Well being Q. 2014;3(4):1.

23. Jones CD, Vu MB, O’Donnell CM, et al. A failure to speak: a qualitative exploration of care coordination between hospitalists and first care suppliers round affected person hospitalizations. J Gen Intern Med. 2015;30(4):417–424. doi:10.1007/s11606-014-3056-x

24. Malterud Ok. [Qualitative methods in medical research: An introduction]. Studentlitteratur; 2014. 3. Language: Swedish.

25. Moser A, Korstjens I. Collection: sensible steerage to qualitative analysis. Half 3: sampling, information assortment and evaluation. Eur J Gen Pract. 2018;24(1):9–18. doi:10.1080/13814788.2017.1375091

26. O’Brien BC, Harris IB, Beckman TJ, Reed DA, Prepare dinner DA. Requirements for reporting qualitative analysis: a synthesis of suggestions. Acad Med. 2014;89(9):1245–1251. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000000388

27. Knight DA, Thompson D, Mathie E, Dickinson A. ‘Seamless care? Only a listing would have helped!’ Older individuals and their carer’s experiences of help with remedy on discharge house from hospital. Well being Count on. 2013;16(3):277–291. doi:10.1111/j.1369-7625.2011.00714.x

28. Vogelsmeier A, Pepper GA, Oderda L, Weir C. Treatment reconciliation: a qualitative evaluation of clinicians’ perceptions. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2013;9(4):419–430. doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.08.002

29. Gillespie U, Alassaad A, Henrohn D, et al. A complete pharmacist intervention to cut back morbidity in sufferers 80 years or older: a randomized managed trial. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(9):894–900. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.71

30. Schnipper JL, Kirwin JL, Cotugno MC, et al. Position of pharmacist counseling in stopping hostile drug occasions after hospitalization. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(5):565–571. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.5.565

31. Foust JB, Vuckovic N, Henriquez E. Hospital to house well being care transition: affected person, caregiver, and clinician views. West J Nurs Res. 2012;34(2):194–212. doi:10.1177/0193945911400448

32. Daliri S, Hugtenburg JG, Ter Riet G, et al. The impact of a pharmacy-led transitional care program on medication-related issues post-discharge: a before-after potential examine. PLoS One. 2019;14(3):e0213593. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0213593

33. Kripalani S, Jackson AT, Schnipper JL, Coleman EA. Selling efficient transitions of care at hospital discharge: a evaluation of key points for hospitalists. J Hosp Med. 2007;2(5):314–323. doi:10.1002/jhm.228

Related Articles

Back to top button