The Potential For Bias In Machine Studying And Alternatives For Well being Insurers To Handle It

The quantity of knowledge collected about well being care in america is gigantic1 and continues to develop quickly. Machine studying has develop into embedded within the medical insurance business for duties corresponding to predicting early illness onset,2 figuring out the chance of future hospitalizations,3 and predicting which members shall be treatment noncompliant. Algorithms are sometimes developed to optimize interventions to drive improved well being outcomes.

As machine studying is more and more utilized in well being care settings, there’s rising concern that it may well replicate and perpetuate previous and current systemic inequities and biases. Researchers have begun to judge algorithms and their results on deprived or marginalized populations. In a single notable research, algorithms used to determine sufferers for a care administration program perpetuated racial disparities,4 additional contributing to racial inequities in well being care use and illness outcomes.58 This analysis led to quick requires higher transparency and accountability throughout the well being care business in how using algorithms is audited and the best way to keep away from bias in predictive fashions.9

We look at problems with bias and equity from the well being care payer perspective, outlining widespread sources of and potential options to bias in algorithms. These considerations are relevant to any computational instruments utilized by insurers, from linear fashions to neural networks, however we concentrate on machine studying strategies due to their complexity and opacity. We define three use instances widespread amongst well being insurers for figuring out and stratifying members who might profit from care administration packages. We then handle how entities within the medical insurance ecosystem can determine and remediate bias in these instances and past. See the net appendix for a abstract of the well being care information collected by the US medical insurance business, the principle phases of machine studying pipelines the place bias arises, widespread sources of bias in predictive well being care fashions, and potential options.10

Widespread Makes use of Of Predictive Modeling By Insurers

Well being insurers use predictive modeling to determine members with complicated well being wants for interventions and outreach, together with care coordination and situation administration. To determine and prioritize members for outreach, most well being plans depend on some mixture of threat scores from industrial distributors, outputs from a number of predictive fashions, and “if-then” kind enterprise guidelines.

As a result of these risk-based prioritization methods drive the allocation of useful well being care sources, the underlying algorithmic processes ought to bear common audits to determine potential biases. We describe how sources of bias associated to drawback choice, final result definition, and information availability and reliability manifest throughout three fashions generally used amongst well being insurers to prioritize care administration.

Illness Onset

Six in ten US adults have a continual illness, and 4 in ten have two or extra continual illnesses.11 Persistent illnesses are vital causes of loss of life, incapacity, and lowered high quality of life and account for trillions of {dollars} in annual well being care prices. Many continual illnesses could also be successfully managed by smoking cessation, diet counseling, or treatment adherence packages. Because of this, fashions predicting the onset of essentially the most prevalent illnesses, particularly these tracked by the Facilities for Medicare and Medicaid Providers (CMS) for high quality efficiency assessments,12 are widespread amongst well being insurers.

When a predictive mannequin is being developed, a elementary supply of bias is the preliminary number of the prediction drawback. Fashions are much less widespread for illnesses that are inclined to have an effect on smaller or minority segments of the member inhabitants (corresponding to sickle cell anemia) or which may not have well-defined or simply scalable interventions. But focusing on such circumstances might drastically impression morbidity, mortality, and well being care prices for these with the situation.

One other bias widespread in illness onset fashions is the supply of knowledge required to determine a goal final result and generate options for predictions. Medical indicators in claims and in digital medical file (EMR) information usually tend to be lacking or populated at decrease frequency for members with much less well being care use. Furthermore, the information reported on the declare replicate disparities in supplier remedy and analysis stemming from implicit and express bias, together with racism.5 Additional, information associated to earlier diagnoses and procedures, different medical historical past, or stage of illness could also be lacking differentially throughout teams, adversely affecting predictions. Incorporating information on the social determinants of well being, together with well being care entry; poverty; training degree; employment; housing; publicity to hazards in residing and occupational environments; and entry to transportation, meals, and well being clinics, might enhance the efficiency of illness onset fashions and scale back the reliance on utilization patterns alone for need-based optimization.

Chance Of Hospitalization

In response to CMS, hospitalizations represented the biggest element of nationwide well being care expenditures in 2017 and 2018.13 Whereas many acute inpatient occasions corresponding to maternity and trauma admissions are unavoidable, others are preventable by efficient main and specialty care, illness administration, availability of interventions at outpatient services, or the entire above. In 2017 the Company for Healthcare Analysis and High quality (AHRQ) estimated that 3.5 million preventable inpatient hospitalizations accounted for $33.7 billion in hospital prices.14

Machine studying fashions that predict the chance of an avoidable inpatient hospitalization (generally known as chance of hospitalization fashions) may also help goal interventions, forestall hostile well being outcomes, and scale back particular person and inhabitants well being care prices.1518 Nonetheless, observing an acute hospitalization occasion within the information is contingent on entry to and use of well being care companies, each of that are influenced by racial and socioeconomic disparities.11,19 Disparities in entry and use imply that some subpopulations are underrepresented within the goal inhabitants and within the information used to foretell the end result of curiosity. Thus, the ensuing mannequin output might replicate these systemic biases, and interventions or coverage choices based mostly on the mannequin outputs threat reinforcing and exacerbating present inequities.

Much like illness onset fashions, one technique to handle the information disparities in chance of hospitalization fashions is thru inclusion of further information sources that present patterns in main or preventative care that may forestall unplanned hospitalization. EMR information can add granularity to scientific occasions, capturing diagnostic and different well being info that is probably not recorded on claims. Nonetheless, integrating EMR and claims information can introduce further bias20 stemming from lacking or incomplete data for sufferers who expertise limitations to constant care. Importantly, lacking scientific codes can point out lack of key diagnostics, procedures, or main care help alongside a affected person’s well being care journey which may have precluded the necessity for inpatient hospitalization. Comparable signs could also be handled otherwise amongst suppliers, resulting in downstream results on hospitalization. Knowledge on social determinants of well being also can enhance the efficiency and doubtlessly interpretations of chance of hospitalization prediction duties.

Treatment Adherence

In 2003 the World Well being Group famous that roughly 50 % of sufferers with continual diseases don’t take drugs as prescribed.21 In america, lack of treatment adherence can result in morbidity and mortality and is estimated to price $100 billion per yr.22 CMS additionally considers treatment adherence to be a essential element of Medicare well being plan efficiency scores, making predictive fashions for treatment adherence widespread throughout the medical insurance business. Adherence can also be related to lowered well being companies use and decrease medical prices for a lot of continual circumstances.23

Predictive fashions usually assist well being insurers’ pharmacy departments design member outreach methods to enhance adherence. These fashions might be developed utilizing regression or classification approaches. Regression-based approaches sometimes predict the proportion of days lined, outlined because the proportion of days throughout a calendar yr {that a} member has entry to their drugs, and classification approaches use a proportion of days lined of higher than 80 % as a goal threshold.

Treatment adherence might be influenced by many elements, together with dosing frequency, unintended effects, and routes of administration. Nonetheless, variations in analysis, remedy, and prescribing are additionally nicely documented. In contrast with White sufferers, members of racial and ethnic minority teams are much less prone to be prescribed opioids for continual ache and fewer prone to obtain evidence-based prescribing practices associated to antidepressants, anticoagulants, diabetes drugs, medicine for dementia, and statins.2432 When treatment adherence fashions are being designed, a distinct goal definition of whether or not a member ought to have a prescription for a situation based mostly on scientific care pointers could also be extra acceptable.

Utilizing machine studying to determine sufferers in danger for being noncompliant with a brand new treatment routine or for falling beneath an optimum degree of adherence over time might be useful for focusing on sources and packages. Nonetheless, well being plans and different entities that develop and use treatment adherence fashions (corresponding to pharmacy profit managers and well being techniques) should acknowledge how systemic biases in entry to pharmacies and prescribed drugs, prescribing patterns, and utilization in Black and Brown communities have an effect on drawback formulation, algorithm improvement and interpretation, and intervention methods.3336

Understanding why a member was predicted to be noncompliant is especially related when treatment adherence interventions are being chosen and applied. Collaborations between interventionists and information scientists can make sure that related contextual info is used to refine the predictive mannequin at hand. For instance, as an alternative of predicting treatment adherence immediately, information scientists can determine members most receptive to lower-cost treatment alternate options or nontraditional supply strategies, as these are prone to be sufferers combating monetary or transportation limitations.

Auditing Machine Studying Pipelines For Bias

Happily, there are a number of methods to test predictive fashions and enterprise processes for bias, and well being insurers ought to set up commonplace however versatile protocols for auditing their fashions and processes. Right here we define a number of sensible approaches, and we word that there’s seemingly no “one-size-fits-all” answer.

Representational Equity

One technique to test for bias is to look at charges of outreach and engagement in care administration packages relative to the proportions of subgroups within the information. For instance, an eligible inhabitants could also be noticed that’s 40 % White, 30 % Black or African American, 20 % Hispanic or Latino, and 10 % Asian. If the proportions of these focused for outreach and engaged in care administration don’t replicate the underlying inhabitants distribution, one would possibly conclude that there was a component of representational bias.37 Notice, nonetheless, that this technique doesn’t report whether or not sources had been appropriately allotted. That’s, there could also be causes to distribute sources equitably based mostly on true care wants, with larger charges of engagement from some subpopulations than others, relatively than equally.

Counterfactual Reasoning

Counterfactual reasoning asks the query, If a given individual was from a distinct subpopulation however with the identical well being profile, would they’ve obtained the identical predicted likelihood of an final result? For care administration, the analogous query might be evaluating care administration program membership for Black and White sufferers. Researchers discovered that when sufferers had been prioritized by threat scores—representing affected person medical prices—from a predictive algorithm, solely 17 % of the sufferers eligible for a care administration program had been Black.4 To simulate a correction, researchers swapped sicker Black sufferers for much less sick White sufferers at every degree of threat till no extra swaps had been potential, with illness measured by whole variety of continual circumstances. On this artificial correction, 46 % of the sufferers qualifying for the care administration program had been Black. By assessing counterfactual equity,38 it’s potential to look at how a mannequin treats each race and different doubtlessly unmeasured confounding elements which may be correlated to race.

Error Fee Stability And Error Evaluation

Error charge steadiness entails evaluating false optimistic and false unfavourable charges for predictions inside specified subpopulations.39 Analyses would possibly examine the charges of false positives and false negatives by race, ethnicity, or gender. For instance, a chi-square check can be utilized to check the charges of false positives (and false negatives) by gender. A statistically vital consequence would point out that the mannequin doesn’t predict equally nicely for each teams and due to this fact has some extent of bias vis-à-vis the error charge steadiness criterion.

Error charge steadiness reviews patterns that the mannequin is detecting and lacking. It will increase understanding of why the mannequin is making classification errors by inspecting members and teams who’re most probably to obtain an incorrect prediction. For instance, a mannequin predicting continual illness incidence could also be much less correct for members with particular circumstances, for members of sure races or ethnicities or who dwell in sure geographies or see sure suppliers. Researchers can then examine the place the machine studying pipeline might be improved and, within the context of a continual illness incidence prediction activity, might resolve to optimize to scale back false unfavourable charges over false optimistic charges. Potential methods are to regulate upsampling or downsampling charges within the coaching information or generate completely different fashions for various subpopulations. Along with data-based options, reviewing errors with a various set of stakeholders who can present context from lived expertise about why particular varieties of errors are noticed and what impression they’ve can scale back unintentional hurt that might be brought about when several types of errors are made.

When bias is recognized, it is vital for stakeholders to have clear discussions about whether or not and the way the biases are problematic, and the potential gaps in information or different elements of mannequin improvement that would have led to the bias. Stakeholders ought to strategize about completely different modeling approaches that would scale back bias, together with redefining the goal final result; experimenting with sampling strategies, information augmentation, or restriction; and mannequin class choice. In some cases, options might result in fashions which have poorer match however which may be fairer, during which case stakeholders want to stick to moral rules in balancing mannequin efficiency, enterprise wants, and well being fairness.

Addressing Bias In Machine Studying As An Trade

Well being insurers share a number of challenges in assessing and lowering bias that might be addressed collaboratively.

Well being insurers share a number of challenges in assessing and lowering bias that might be addressed collaboratively as an business. Whereas these themes aren’t exhaustive, we imagine that they characterize main areas the place the sphere of truthful machine studying has the potential to make main advances within the coming months and years.

Trade Vigilance

Algorithmovigilance refers to scientific strategies and actions regarding the analysis, monitoring, understanding, and prevention of hostile results of algorithms in well being care.40 Requires the well being care business, together with well being insurers, to observe and consider machine studying fashions for bias have been growing from a number of sectors. In January 2021 Pennsylvania’s new Interagency Well being Reform Council really helpful that payers and suppliers evaluation and revise their predictive analytics and algorithms to take away bias.41 The Nationwide Committee for High quality Assurance (NCQA) and AHRQ even have taken an curiosity within the impression of well being care algorithms on racial disparities in well being and well being care. For instance, the NCQA is incorporating analysis of racial bias into accreditation requirements.42 As well as, laws launched within the Home and Senate in 2019—the Algorithmic Accountability Act—would have required sure industrial entities to conduct assessments of high-risk techniques that contain private info or make automated choices, corresponding to machine studying. This consideration to bias in well being care algorithms has led to the event of and renewed consideration to pointers, greatest practices, and analytics instruments associated to the analysis and use of algorithms in predictive analytics.43 These instruments have the potential to tell and unify your entire payer area to fight bias and allow well being insurers to extra successfully present high-quality, equitable care and companies to members. In the end, these instruments would require testing at scale and fixed and rigorous analysis to make sure that they’re having the supposed optimistic impacts on member populations and that fashions tuned for equity don’t bear “bias drift” over time or throughout enterprise implementation.

Algorithmovigilance requires that machine studying fashions be designed in methods that may be empirically examined. Well being care firms ought to incorporate identified strategies for figuring out and remediating algorithmic bias into their machine studying pipelines and take part within the ongoing improvement and dissemination of recent strategies. Common evaluation of whether or not fashions are producing perception and lead to actions that maximize the supposed final result, corresponding to lowering acute hospitalizations in a inhabitants, ought to happen. Evaluations shouldn’t be restricted to the mannequin output however also needs to assess the impression of actions taken based mostly on mannequin outcomes and may look at whether or not impacts had been differential throughout related subgroups.

Fashions which might be each correct and truthful will result in interventions and enterprise practices that finally profit members on the highest ranges of threat and wish and result in higher outcomes and decrease prices.

Acquiring And Ethically Utilizing Race And Ethnicity Knowledge

Knowledge on members’ race and ethnicity might improve medical administration packages and facilitate audits for potential racial bias in each algorithmic output and care administration outreach. But most well being plans don’t gather race, ethnicity, or main or most well-liked language information as a part of the enrollment course of or in every other systematic means.

CMS has lately made race, ethnicity, and language information out there to well being plans for Medicare Benefit enrollees. For commercially insured members, individual-level information could also be out there in EMR information from supplier well being techniques, though not all well being techniques present EMR information to payers. Well being plans might also receive these information from surveys, though surveys are often administered to subsets of the member inhabitants. Third-party vendor information additionally include info on race, ethnicity and language, however match charges with well being plan membership varies, as does the specificity of the information. Race imputation utilizing statistical estimation strategies corresponding to Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding or Bayesian Improved First Title Surname Geocoding44,45 might also be embedded with bias. Knowledge on race, ethnicity, and language may also be obtained on the census block or tract degree by the American Neighborhood Survey, however these information sources don’t present individual-level specificity and are restricted to 5 single-race teams, which doesn’t sufficiently seize heterogeneity inside a group.

Many well being plans are hesitant to gather and use information on race, ethnicity, and language, even when supplied voluntarily, due to the shortage of established regulatory and oversight insurance policies on the best way to ethically gather, mixture, use, and report information on race and ethnicity. Establishing these insurance policies on the federal or state degree would offer steerage and protections, however it will seemingly take years to develop and implement. The medical insurance business ought to coalesce round moral rules and requirements for accumulating and utilizing information on race, ethnicity, and language, in addition to on different social determinants of well being. Entities corresponding to America’s Well being Insurance coverage Plans or the NCQA might additionally set up commonplace apply protocols, which can embody establishing a evaluation board or oversight committee at every well being plan that will govern using race and ethnicity information in analytics and reporting.

Addressing Lacking Knowledge And Unhealthy Proxies

Member well being information aren’t collected until a supplier is seen, leading to extra lacking information on populations which have obstacles to entry care. Even when care is delivered, disparities in remedy and analysis contribute to incomplete and even incorrect information.5,6 Typically, proxies for a specific goal variable or for particular person options are used, however in addition they might be flawed and exacerbate bias.4 For instance, member race used as a characteristic in a mannequin for situation onset shouldn’t be used to make claims about underlying genetic variations. Race is a proxy for systemic racism and must be thought of interactively with different information together with social determinants of well being. As one other instance, well being care prices aren’t an optimum or full illustration of situation complexity.

To facilitate truthful machine studying, higher methodologies for evaluating and addressing information missingness, sparsity, and irregularities are wanted. For instance, computer systems can generate real looking well being care information to rebalance information units, however the artificial information might in truth perpetuate present biases.46 Well being-related behaviors for high-risk members who underuse care are pushed by a large number of social determinants of well being and different environmental elements not captured in information generally out there to well being plans. The following technology of machine studying and synthetic intelligence within the medical insurance business must explicitly contemplate the best way to incorporate exterior sources of knowledge from social media platforms, wearable units, crowdsourcing, and different varieties of small- and large-scale community-level sources. Cross-plan collaborations might additionally result in sturdy insights—for instance, throughout members insured by Medicare, Medicaid, and industrial plans throughout the US.

Together with All Related Voices

Machine studying in well being care is developed in response to a enterprise or scientific query. Equity in machine studying is facilitated by collaborative conversations between machine studying scientists and scientific specialists, supplemented by member voices, and guided by the experience of fairness specialists. Various information science groups, together with practitioners with lived expertise—particularly those that are disproportionately affected by systemic inequities within the well being care system—should be deliberately created. Collaboration inside and throughout such groups can reveal blind spots and impediments47 in efforts to advertise well being fairness by predictive analytics.


Alternatives exist to make sure that machine studying is truthful, not solely on moral grounds but additionally on robust operational and enterprise grounds.

The duty for constructing and implementing equitable machine studying fashions lies with the broader medical insurance group. Continued machine studying improvement is inevitable. Alternatives exist to make sure that machine studying is truthful, not solely on moral grounds but additionally on robust operational and enterprise grounds. With current requires energetic vigilance of machine studying and its implementations, institutional and business commitments to extend fairness in well being care are wanted. This contains growing and disseminating greatest practices in bias detection and remediation in addition to the event of focused packages to scale back bias and promote fairness, and deeper involvement and communication with the members and communities served by well being plans. With these mixed efforts, extra equitable well being care might be achieved.


Stephanie S. Gervasi and Irene Y. Chen are co–first authors of this work. The authors are grateful to Alya Nadji and two nameless reviewers for suggestions that drastically improved their manuscript. That is an open entry article distributed in accordance with the phrases of the Artistic Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which allows others to distribute, remix, adapt, and construct upon this work, for industrial use, supplied the unique work is correctly cited. See


  • 1 Raghupathi W, Raghupathi V. Massive information analytics in healthcare: promise and potential. Well being Inf Sci Syst. 2014;2:3. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 2 Razavian N, Blecker S, Schmidt AM, Smith-McLallen A, Nigam S, Sontag D. Inhabitants-level prediction of kind 2 diabetes from claims information and evaluation of threat elements. Massive Knowledge. 2015;3(4):277–87. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 3 Kansagara D, Englander H, Salanitro A, Kagen D, Theobald C, Freeman Met al. Threat prediction fashions for hospital readmission: a scientific evaluation. JAMA. 2011;306(15):1688–98. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 4 Obermeyer Z, Powers B, Vogeli C, Mullainathan S. Dissecting racial bias in an algorithm used to handle the well being of populations. Science. 2019;366(6464):447–53. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 5 Fiscella Ok, Franks P, Gold MR, Clancy CM. Inequality in high quality: addressing socioeconomic, racial, and ethnic disparities in well being care. JAMA. 2000;283(19):2579–84. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 6 Cleveland Manchanda E, Couillard C, Sivashanker Ok. Inequity in disaster requirements of care. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(4):e16. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 7 Ashana DC, Anesi GL, Liu VX, Escobar GJ, Chesley C, Eneanya NDet al. Equitably allocating sources throughout crises: racial variations in mortality prediction fashions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021;204(2):178–86. Medline, Google Scholar
  • 8 Oxman D. The disaster in disaster requirements of care. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2021 Feb 5(ja). Google Scholar
  • 9 Ron Wyden [Internet]. Washington (DC): Workplace of Sen. Ron Wyden. Press launch, Wyden, Booker demand solutions on biased well being care algorithms; 2019 Dec 3 [cited 2022 Jan 11]. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 10 To entry the appendix, click on on the Particulars tab of the article on-line.
  • 11 Rodriguez-Gutierrez R, Herrin J, Lipska KJ, Montori VM, Shah ND, McCoy RG. Racial and ethnic variations in 30-day hospital readmissions amongst US adults with diabetes. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913249. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 12 Facilities for Medicare and Medicaid Providers. Healthcare Effectiveness Knowledge and Info Set (HEDIS) [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): CMS; [last modified 2021 Dec 1; cited 2022 Jan 12]. Obtainable from: being-Plans/SpecialNeedsPlans/SNP-HEDIS Google Scholar
  • 13 Facilities for Medicare and Medicaid Providers. NHE truth sheet [Internet]. Baltimore (MD): CMS; [last modified 2021 Dec 15; cited 2022 Jan 3]. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 14 McDermott KW, Jiang HJ. Traits and prices of probably preventable inpatient stays, 2017 [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Company for Healthcare Analysis and High quality; 2020 Jun [cited 2021 Dec 23]. (HCUP Statistical Transient No. 259). Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 15 Kansagara D, Englander H, Salanitro A, Kagen D, Theobald C, Freeman Met al. Threat prediction fashions for hospital readmission: a scientific evaluation. JAMA. 2011;306(15):1688–98. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 16 Holloway J, Neely C, Yuan X, Zhang Y, Ouyang J, Cantrell Det al. Evaluating the efficiency of a predictive modeling strategy to figuring out members at high-risk of hospitalization. J Med Econ. 2020;23(3):228–34. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 17 Ukert B, David G, Smith-McLallen A, Chawla R. Do payor‐based mostly outreach packages scale back medical price and utilization? Well being Econ. 2020;29(6):671–82. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 18 David G, Smith-McLallen A, Ukert B. The impact of predictive analytics–pushed interventions on healthcare utilization. J Well being Econ. 2019;64:68–79. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 19 Laditka JN, Laditka SB. Race, ethnicity, and hospitalization for six continual ambulatory care delicate circumstances within the USA. Ethn Well being. 2006;11(3):247–63. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 20 Gianfrancesco MA, Tamang S, Yazdany J, Schmajuk G. Potential biases in machine studying algorithms utilizing digital well being file information. JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(11):1544–7. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 21 Sabaté E. Adherence to long-term therapies: proof for motion [Internet]. Geneva: World Well being Group; 2003 [cited 2022 Jan 3]. Obtainable from: with/10665/42682/9241545992.pdf Google Scholar
  • 22 Benjamin RM. Treatment adherence: serving to sufferers take their medicines as directed. Public Well being Rep. 2012;127(1):2–3. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 23 Osterberg L, Blaschke T. Adherence to treatment. N Engl J Med. 2005;353(5):487–97. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 24 Ringwalt C, Roberts AW, Gugelmann H, Skinner AC. Racial disparities throughout supplier specialties in opioid prescriptions disbursed to Medicaid beneficiaries with continual noncancer ache. Ache Med. 2015;16(4):633–40. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 25 Singhal A, Tien YY, Hsia RY. Racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescriptions at emergency division visits for circumstances generally related to prescription drug abuse. PloS One. 2016 ;11(8):e0159224. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 26 Jung Ok, Lim D, Shi Y. Racial-ethnic disparities in use of antidepressants in personal protection: implications for the Inexpensive Care Act. Psychiatr Serv. 2014;65(9):1140–6. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 27 Cruz-Flores S, Rabinstein A, Biller J, Elkind MS, Griffith P, Gorelick PBet al. Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care: the American expertise: a press release for healthcare professionals from the American Coronary heart Affiliation/American Stroke Affiliation. Stroke. 2011;42(7):2091–116. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 28 Trinacty CM, Adams AS, Soumerai SB, Zhang F, Meigs JB, Piette JDet al. Racial variations in long-term adherence to oral antidiabetic drug remedy: a longitudinal cohort research. BMC Well being Serv Res. 2009;9:24. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 29 Mehta KM, Yin M, Resendez C, Yaffe Ok. Ethnic variations in acetylcholinesterase inhibitor use for Alzheimer illness. Neurology. 2005;65(1):159–62. Google Scholar
  • 30 Karpinski SA, Look KA, Vanness DJ. Components related to county-level variation within the prescription of statins. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2019;25(12):1358–65. Medline, Google Scholar
  • 31 Qato DM, Alexander GC, Chakraborty A, Guadamuz JS, Jackson JW. Affiliation between pharmacy closures and adherence to cardiovascular drugs amongst older US adults. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(4):e192606. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 32 Wisseh C, Hildreth Ok, Marshall J, Tanner A, Bazargan M, Robinson P. Social determinants of pharmacy deserts in Los Angeles County. J Racial Ethn Well being Disparities. 2020;8(6):1424–34. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 33 Bryant-Stephens T. Bronchial asthma disparities in city environments. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(6):1199–206. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 34 Corridor WJ, Chapman MV, Lee KM, Merino YM, Thomas TW, Payne BKet al. Implicit racial/ethnic bias amongst well being care professionals and its affect on well being care outcomes: a scientific evaluation. Am J Public Well being. 2015;105(12):e60–76. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 35 McQuaid EL, Landier W. Cultural points in treatment adherence: disparities and instructions. J Gen Intern Med. 2018;33(2):200–6. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 36 Kamishima T, Akaho S, Sakuma J. Equity-aware studying by regularization strategy. In: Spiliopoulou M, Wang H, Prepare dinner D, Pei J, Wang W, Zaïane Oet al. editors. ICDMW 2011: eleventh IEEE Worldwide Convention on Knowledge Mining Workshops; 2011 Dec; Vancouver, British Columbia [Internet]. Piscataway (NJ): Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.; 2011 [cited 2021 Dec 23]. p. 643–50. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 37 Zafar MB, Valera I, Rodriguez MG, Gummadi KP. Equity constraints: mechanisms for truthful classification. In: Proceedings of the twentieth Worldwide Convention on Synthetic Intelligence and Statistics 2017; 2011 Apr 20–22; Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Proceedings of Machine Studying Analysis [serial on the Internet]. Vol. 54 (2017); [cited 2021 Dec 23]. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 38 Kusner M, Loftus J, Russell C, Silva R. Counterfactual equity. In: Guyon I, Luxburg UV, Bengio S, Wallach H, Fergus R, Vishwanathan Set al. editors. Advances in Neural Info Processing Programs 30 (NIPS 2017); 2017 Dec 4–9; Lengthy Seashore, California [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neural Info Processing Programs Basis; [cited 2021 Dec 23]. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 39 Hardt M, Worth E, Srebro N. Equality of alternative in supervised studying. In: Lee D, Sugiyama M, Luxburg U, Guyon I, Garnett R editors. Advances in Neural Info Processing Programs 29 (NIPS 2016); 2016 Dec 5–10; Barcelona, Spain [Internet]. [place unknown]: Neural Info Processing Programs Basis; [cited 2021 Dec 23]. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 40 Embi PJ. Algorithmovigilance—advancing strategies to investigate and monitor synthetic intelligence–pushed well being take care of effectiveness and fairness. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(4):e214622. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 41 Interagency Well being Reform Council. Well being care reform suggestions [Internet]. Harrisburg (PA): Workplace of Governor Tom Wolf; 2020 Dec [cited 2021 Dec 15]. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 42 Nationwide Committee for High quality Assurance. Well being fairness [Internet]. Washington (DC): NCQA; [cited 2022 Jan 12]. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 43 Obermeyer Z, Nissan R, Stern M, Eaneff S, Bembeneck EJ, Mullainathan S. Algorithm bias playbook [Internet]. Chicago (IL): Middle for Utilized Synthetic Intelligence; [cited 2021 Dec 23]. Obtainable for obtain from: Google Scholar
  • 44 Voicu I. Utilizing first identify info to enhance race and ethnicity classification. Statistics and Public Coverage. 2018;5(1):1–3. Crossref, Google Scholar
  • 45 Haas A, Elliott MN, Dembosky JW, Adams JL, Wilson‐Frederick SM, Mallett JSet al. Imputation of race/ethnicity to allow measurement of HEDIS efficiency by race/ethnicity. Well being Serv Res. 2019;54(1):13–23. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar
  • 46 Zhang H, Lu AX, Abdalla M, McDermott M, Ghassemi M. Hurtful phrases: quantifying biases in scientific contextual phrase embeddings. In: CHIL ’20: Proceedings of the ACM Convention on Well being, Inference, and Studying; 2020 Apr 2–4; Toronto, Ontario [Internet]. New York (NY): Affiliation for Computing Equipment; [cited 2021 Dec 23]. Obtainable from: Google Scholar
  • 47 Pollard TJ, Chen I, Wiens J, Horng S, Wong D, Ghassemi Met al. Turning the crank for machine studying: ease, at what expense? Lancet Digit Well being. 2019;1(5):e198–9. Crossref, Medline, Google Scholar

Related Articles

Back to top button