Therapy Patterns & Outcomes Amongst Glioblastoma Sufferers

Amal Marie,1,2 Ahmed Maklad,1,3 Abdullah AlTwairgi,4 Moemen Aly,1,5 Ashraf Elyamany,6 Wafaa AlShaqweer,7 Mohamed Senosy,1 Ali Balbaid1

1Division of Radiation Oncology, Complete Most cancers Centre, King Fahad Medical Metropolis, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Medical Oncology Division, Ain Shams College, Cairo, Egypt; 3Medical Oncology Division, Sohag College, Sohag, Egypt; 4Division of Medical Oncology, King Fahad Medical Metropolis, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medication, South Egypt Most cancers Institute, Assiut College, Assiut, Egypt; 6Medical Oncology Division, SECI, Assiut College, Egypt/KSMC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 7Pathology Division, King Fahad Medical Metropolis, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Background: Administration of aged sufferers with glioblastoma (GBM) is a controversial situation and wishes cautious evaluation and choice for aggressive radical remedy and chemotherapy protocols vs short-course radiotherapy with out chemotherapy.
Strategies: We evaluated remedy patterns and final result amongst aged GBM sufferers handled in KFMC, Riyadh. The first endpoint is total survival (OS) and the secondary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS); sufferers have been reviewed concerning radiotherapy (Rth) fractionation modalities, surgical procedure, and chemotherapy (CTR) given in correlation to PFS, OS.
Outcomes: Fifty-nine sufferers have been recruited in our examine with median age 66 (vary: 60– 81) years, and 47 (80%) have been males. Thirty-seven sufferers (62.7%) had ECOG efficiency standing (PS) ≥ 2, and 22 sufferers (37.3%) had PS P=0.043 and 0.026), respectively. The median PFS was 9 months (95percentCI: 6.13– 11.87). For univariate evaluation, PS, time to begin adjuvant remedy, and completion of six months CTR have been vital elements for PFS.
Conclusion: Typical Rth and completion of adjuvant CTR result in higher OS, whereas earlier begin of adjuvant remedy and the completion of adjuvant CTR have been related to a greater PFS.


Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most typical malignant main mind tumor amongst adults.1 The reported median age at prognosis is about 65 years outdated, with a quickly growing incidence amongst sufferers aged greater than 65 years, which just about doubled from 5.1 per 100,000 in 1970 to 10.6 per 100,000 in 1990.2 The usual remedy for newly identified GBM with good efficiency standing and age lower than 70 years is the addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy adopted by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide as per the Part III examine finished by Stupp et al, 2005, median sufferers age was 56 years, and 84% of sufferers had undergone debulking surgical procedure. At a median follow-up of 28 months, the median survival was 14.6 months with radiotherapy plus temozolomide and 12.1 months with radiotherapy alone.3 The median survival amongst all GBM sufferers ranges from 12 to fifteen months from prognosis regardless of aggressive remedy, whereas it was markedly shorter (solely 4 to 5 months) amongst aged sufferers.4,5 It’s evident from current literature that the aged GBM sufferers normally obtain much less efficient therapies together with surgical procedure, radiotherapy (Rth), and chemotherapy (CTR) in comparison with their youthful counterparts.6,7 There’s even a clearly outlined survival profit for aged GBM sufferers receiving longer-course radiotherapy in comparison with finest supportive care.8 In distinction, Roa et al defined a noninferiority of hypofractionated Rth course of 40 Grey (Gy) in comparison with commonplace Rth of 60 Gy amongst sufferers aged 60 years and above with minimal ECOG PS 3.9

On this examine, we reviewed the totally different remedy choices provided to aged sufferers with GBM at a tertiary care middle in Riyadh and the affect on total survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).

Supplies and Strategies

Research Design

A retrospective cohort examine was carried out within the Division of Radiation Oncology, King Fahad Medical Metropolis (KFMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The examine was authorized by the native Ethics Committee of KFMC. Knowledge have been obtained from the digital medical information of the hospital for aged GBM instances.

Eligibility Standards

The examine included all histologically confirmed, newly identified aged (age ≥60 years) GBM instances, who have been handled at our institute between January 2008 and January 2018. The examine excluded sufferers with recurrent illness at preliminary presentation.

Therapy Modalities

All sufferers underwent surgical intervention both by biopsy solely, subtotal resection (STR), or gross complete resection (GTR), adopted by adjuvant remedy apart from one affected person who died earlier than beginning adjuvant remedy. Adjuvant remedy included both Rth solely or Rth concurrent with temozolomide. Radiotherapy included both standard fractionation (59.4 Gy/33 fractions or 60 Gy/30 fractions) or hypofractionation (30 Gy/10 fractions or 40 Gy/15 fractions). A proportion of sufferers with an Japanese Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) efficiency standing (PS) ≤2 have been provided adjuvant CTR after completion of radiation.

Definition of Survival

OS was outlined because the interval between preliminary surgical procedure or pathology prognosis and date of demise (the place relevant). In sufferers nonetheless alive on the finish of the examine interval, information have been censored on January 1, 2018. PFS was outlined because the interval between preliminary surgical procedure or pathology prognosis and the date of first development or recurrence or demise (if no development was reported) or till the final analysis date.

Knowledge Assortment

The information have been collected from digital medical information by way of a knowledge assortment kind which was developed to gather affected person traits, pathology, exterior beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and CTR particulars, and development and survival occasions.

Statistical Evaluation

OS and PFS are calculated by utilizing the Kaplan–Meier technique, and the distinction in survival curves was in contrast by utilizing the log rank check. Totally different categorical variables are in contrast with the chi-squared check. The extent of significance was set at P<0.05 and P-values are primarily based on two-sided exams. Multivariate evaluation utilizing the Cox proportional hazards mannequin is carried out to outline numerous potential prognostic elements. All analyses have been carried out utilizing the SPSS model (IBM SPSS, Armonk, NY, USA).

Compliance with Moral Requirements

This examine was authorized by Moral Committee and get IRB approval No. 18–201 April 2018. It was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1975. The examine didn’t intrude with affected person administration and was finished retrospectively, collected utilizing medical information with none violation of sufferers’ confidentiality so a consent from the affected person was not wanted. Knowledge will probably be obtainable if wanted to be reviewed by journal reviewers after approval of the analysis middle King Fahad Medical Metropolis (KFMC).


A complete of 59 sufferers met the inclusion standards out of 158 newly identified GBM instances who have been handled in our establishment between January 2008 and January 2018. One case died earlier than adjuvant remedy. The median age at prognosis was 66 years (ranging between 60 and 81 years); 47 sufferers have been males (79.7%) and 12 have been females (20.3%). Forty-nine sufferers (83%) have been identified with GBM and 10 sufferers (16.9%) with GBM variants. Fifty-three (89.8%) sufferers had a unilateral tumor and 6 (10.2%) sufferers had bilateral illness. Sufferers’ demographic options and scientific traits are included in Desk 1, tumor places have been summarized in Desk 2.

Desk 1 Sufferers’ Demographic Options and Medical Traits

Desk 2 Tumor Places

Sufferers with ECOG PS ≥2 have been 37 sufferers (62.7%) and 22 sufferers (37.3%) had PS <2. All sufferers underwent surgical procedure with 10 (16.9%) sufferers had biopsy solely, 42 sufferers had STR (71.2%) and 7 sufferers (11.9%) had GTR. The median time to begin adjuvant remedy was 1.58 months (0.43–6.54 months). Fifty-eight sufferers obtained adjuvant remedy; 22 sufferers (37.3%) obtained Rth solely, 13 sufferers (22%) obtained concurrent chemoradiotherapy and 23 sufferers (39%) obtained concurrent chemoradiotherapy adopted by adjuvant CTR. Amongst sufferers obtained adjuvant CTR; 11 sufferers (47.8%) obtained ≥6 cycles and 12 sufferers (52.2%) obtained <6 cycles. Relating to Rth fractionation; 38 sufferers (64.4%) obtained standard fractionation (59.4 Gy/33 fractions or 60 Gy/30 fractions) and 21 sufferers (35.6%) obtained hypofractionation (25 Gy/5, 30 Gy/10 fractions or 40 Gy/15 fractions).

The median OS was 12 months (95percentCI; 9.52–14.48) Determine 1. For univariate evaluation, receiving a standard Rth and completion of six months adjuvant CTR have been vital elements for O.S (P=0.043 and 0.026, respectively). For multivariate these have been additionally vital (P=0.035 and 0.002, respectively) Desk 3 and Figures 2 and three.

Desk 3 Evaluation of Totally different Components Affecting OS for Our Research Group of Aged GBM

Determine 1 OS of all examine teams of aged GBM.

Determine 2 Impact of accomplished CTR on OS of aged GBM sufferers.

Determine 3 Impact of radiotherapy fractionation on OS of aged GBM sufferers.

The median PFS was 9 months (95percentCI: 6.13–11.87) Determine 4. For univariate evaluation PS, time to begin adjuvant remedy, and completion of six months CTR have been vital elements for PFS. For multivariate evaluation beginning adjuvant remedy inside two months and accomplished chemotherapy six months have been vital elements (P=0.032 and 0.04, respectively) Desk 4 and Figures 5 and 6.

Desk 4 Evaluation of Totally different Components Affecting PFS for Our Research Group of Aged GBM

Determine 4 PFS of all examine teams of aged GBM.

Determine 5 Impact of accomplished CTR on PFS of aged GBM sufferers.

Determine 6 Impact of interval to begin adjuvant remedy on PFS of aged GBM sufferers.


There isn’t a well-established commonplace of look after the remedy of glioblastoma within the aged, which make choice for remedy of the match aged troublesome. Within the present examine we geared toward reviewing the totally different remedy choices provided to aged sufferers with GBM at KFMC, and its affect on total survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). There’s controversy about definition of aged inhabitants. We determined to observe the Nordic trial inclusion standards which included sufferers with age greater than 60 years as that is extra aligned with life expectancy in our inhabitants.10 The well-known research for aged inhabitants like Wick et al., (NOA-08 examine) didn’t embrace sufferers with concurrent plus adjuvant temozolomide, not like Perry et al, examine which added temozolomide to short-course radiation solely, whereas our sufferers obtained extra totally different remedy choices based on remedy pointers, in our examine we tried to guage the advantage of totally different remedy modalities.11,12 The (OS) of our sufferers was 12 months which was comparable with 9.2 months for 1059 sufferers within the Scoccianti et al, examine.13 The median PFS was 9 months for our instances, and this was increased than the Ewelt examine which confirmed 5.9 months PFS for 1201 sufferers.14 In a retrospective evaluation of American sufferers greater than 65 years of age with a brand new prognosis of GBM between 1997 and 2009, median survival ranged between two months (for sufferers who obtained no postoperative remedy) and 11 months (for individuals who obtained commonplace mixed chemoradiation).15 In virtually all reported sequence within the literature, we discovered younger age, good efficiency standing, and secure optimum resection to be the well-known good prognostic elements in sufferers with GBM.16–18 Within the current examine, we discovered standard Rth and completion of six months adjuvant CTR have been impartial prognostic elements for total survival. In our examine extent of surgical resection was discovered to haven’t any vital affect on both PFS or OS, which isn’t much like most revealed information, could also be associated to a small proportion of sufferers that would obtain GTR (seven sufferers 11.9% underwent GTR). The outcomes of meta-analysis together with 34 research confirmed that surgical resection was superior to biopsy concerning OS (imply distinction 3.88 months, 95percentCI: 2.14–5.62, P<0.001).19 In a potential randomized examine performed by Vuorinen et al mentioned the extent of resection in aged sufferers with malignant GBM aged >65 years discovered that surgical elimination of the tumor extended survival 2.8 occasions than biopsy (median OS: 171 days after the craniotomy vs 85 days after the biopsy).20 Relating to adjuvant remedy modality, there’s a vital enchancment in imply OS in sufferers receiving adjuvant chemotherapy after CCRT (Rth 10.9 months vs CCRT solely 11.1 months vs CCRT + adjuvant chemotherapy 28.4 months (P=0.007). That is consistent with latest information of Perry et al, that states that the addition of chemotherapy concurrent with radiation and after completion of radiation added many advantages to remedy outcomes of aged sufferers. His examine included 562 sufferers with GBM aged ≥65 years and in contrast hypo-Rth (40 Gy/15 Fr) alone vs hypo-Rth with three weeks of concomitant TMZ plus month-to-month adjuvant TMZ till development or completion of 12 cycles. Combining TMZ with hypo-Rth was tolerable and resulted in extended OS and PFS in all GBM affected person teams. Hypo-Rth plus TMZ was superior in median OS and PFS than radiation alone (9.3 and 5.3 months vs 7.6 and three.9 months, respectively; HR: 0.67 for OS and 0.50 for PFS). No distinction was famous in QOL, however sufferers within the radiotherapy plus TMZ group demonstrated excessive ranges of nausea, vomiting, and constipation.11

Research have proven promising survival with the usage of prolonged temozolomide (E-TMZ) in comparison with standard six cycles of temozolomide (C-TMZ) in malignant gliomas; nonetheless, the reviews are principally restricted to retrospective research with vital bias.21,22

Our examine demonstrated that the variety of adjuvant chemotherapy cycles had a major affect on each median PFS and OS. The median PFS in sufferers receiving <6 cycles of chemotherapy was seven months (95percentCI: 5.842–8.158) vs 12 months (95percentCI: 6.979–17.021) in sufferers receiving ≥6 cycles of chemotherapy (P=0.025). Due to this fact, even in aged sufferers prolonged routine of temozolomide inferred a optimistic affect on survival if tolerated.

Within the current examine the fractionation of radiotherapy confirmed OS within the standard radiotherapy group (14 months (95percentCI: 9.787–180,213) vs 9 months (95percentCI: 6.009–11.991) in hypofractionation group (P=0.005). In additional evaluation of sufferers receiving standard fractionation, the median OS is way improved within the <70 age group (15 months vs 11 months, P=0.176) and ≥2 PS group (15 months vs six months, P=0.629). Roa et al performed a randomized managed trial evaluating commonplace radiotherapy (60 Gy/30 Fr) with hypofractionated radiotherapy (40 Gy/15 Fr) for 100 postsurgical sufferers with GBM aged ≥60 years. OS between standard Rth and hypofractionated Rth (5.1 and 5.6 months, respectively) was not considerably totally different, additionally no distinction was famous in Karnofsky efficiency standing (KPS), however steroid use was extra frequent within the standard Rth.8 Minniti et al retrospectively studied sufferers with GBM aged ≥65 years handled with standard Rth (60 Gy/30 Fr) vs hypofractionated Rth (40 Gy/15 Fr) each with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ. Median OS and PFS didn’t differ between the 2 remedy arms (12 and 5.6 months for standard Rth, and 12.5 and 6.7 months for hypofractionated Rth, respectively). Nonetheless, standard Rth with TMZ was related to a major improve in grade 2 and three neurological toxicity, decreased KPS scores, and excessive steroid requirement.23


Interpretation of the current findings is restricted by the retrospective nature of the info. Additional analysis is required to find out the optimum administration of older sufferers with GBM. The examine demonstrated the advantage of including radiation remedy and adjuvant temozolomide for aged sufferers with glioblastoma. The best radiotherapy fractionation and the variety of chemotherapy cycles given on this inhabitants stays an ongoing query. Elevated availability and utilization of molecular markers comparable to MGMT methylation standing are actually serving to to pick out the sufferers almost certainly to learn from temozolomide.


The authors want to thank the analysis centre at King Fahad Medical Metropolis for supporting this examine and to all our radiation oncology employees members.


The authors report no conflicts of curiosity on this work.


1. Dolecek TA, Propp JM, Stroup NE, et al. CBTRUS statistical report: main mind and central nervous system tumors identified in the USA in 2005–2009. Neuro Oncol. 2012;14(Suppl 5):v1–v49. doi:10.1093/neuonc/nos218

2. Chakrabarti I, Cockburn M, Cozen W, et al. A population-based description of glioblastoma multiforme in Los Angeles County, 1974–1999. Most cancers. 2005;104(12):2798–2806. doi:10.1002/cncr.21539

3. Stupp R, Mason WP, van den Bent MJ, et al.; European Organisation for Analysis and Therapy of Most cancers Mind Tumor and Radiotherapy Teams; Nationwide Most cancers Institute of Canada Medical Trials Group. Radiotherapy plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(10):987–996. PMID: 15758009. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa043330

4. Iwamoto FM, Reiner AS, Panageas KS, et al. Patterns of care in aged glioblastoma sufferers. Ann Neurol. 2008;64(6):628–634. doi:10.1002/ana.21521

5. Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Maldonado JL, Williams VL, et al. Racial/ethnic variations in survival amongst aged sufferers with a main glioblastoma. J Neurooncol. 2007;85(2):171–180. doi:10.1007/s11060-007-9405-4

6. Walker GV, Li J, Mahajan A, et al. Lowering radiation remedy utilization in grownup sufferers with glioblastoma multiforme. Most cancers. 2012;118(18):4538–4544. doi:10.1002/cncr.27439

7. Scott J, Tsai YY, Chinnaiyan P, et al. Effectiveness of radiotherapy for aged sufferers with glioblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;81(1):206–210. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2010.04.033

8. Keime-Guibert F, Chinot O, Taillandier L, et al. Radiotherapy for glioblastoma within the aged. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(15):1527–1535. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa065901

9. Roa W, Brasher PM, Bauman G, et al. Abbreviated course of radiation remedy in older sufferers with glioblastoma multiforme: a potential randomized scientific trial. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(9):1583–1588. doi:10.1200/JCO.2004.06.082

10. Malmström A, Grønberg BH, Marosi C, et al.; Nordic Medical Mind Tumour Research Group (NCBTSG). Temozolomide versus commonplace 6-week radiotherapy versus hypofractionated radiotherapy in sufferers older than 60 years with glioblastoma: the Nordic randomised, Part 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(9):916–926. PMID: 22877848. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70265-6

11. Wick W, Platten M, Meisner C, et al.; NOA-08 Research Group of Neuro-oncology Working Group (NOA) of German Most cancers Society. Temozolomide chemotherapy alone versus radiotherapy alone for malignant astrocytoma within the aged: the NOA-08 randomised, part 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012;13(7):707–715. PMID: 22578793. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70164-X

12. Perry JR, Laperriere N, O’Callaghan CJ, et al. Brief-course radiation plus temozolomide in aged sufferers with glioblastoma. N Engl J Med. 2017;376:1027–1037. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1611977

13. Scoccianti S, Magrini SM, Ricardi U, et al. Patterns of care and survival in a retrospective evaluation of 1059 sufferers with glioblastoma multiforme handled between 2002 and 2007: a multicenter examine by the Central Nervous System Research Group of Airo (Italian Affiliation of Radiation Oncology). Neurosurgery. 2010;67:446–458. doi:10.1227/01.NEU.0000371990.86656.E8

14. Ewelt C, Goeppert M, Rapp M, et al. Glioblastoma multiforme of the aged: the prognostic impact of resection on survival. J Neurooncol. 2011;103:611–618. doi:10.1007/s11060-010-0429-9

15. Burton E, Ugiliweneza B, Woo S, Skirboll S, Boaky M, Surveillance A. Epidemiology and finish outcomes–medicare information evaluation of aged sufferers with glioblastoma multiforme: remedy patterns, outcomes and value. Mol Clin Oncol. 2015;3:971–978. doi:10.3892/mco.2015.590

16. Li SW, Qiu XG, Chen BS, et al. Prognostic elements influencing scientific outcomes of glioblastoma multiforme. Chin Med J (Engl). 2009;122:1245–1249.

17. Tait MJ, Petrik V, Loosemore A, et al. Survival of sufferers with glioblastoma multiforme has not improved between 1993 and 2004: evaluation of 625 instances. Br J Neurosurg. 2007;21:496–500. doi:10.1080/02688690701449251

18. Tugcu B, Postalci LS, Gunaldi O, et al. Efficacy of scientific prognostic elements on survival in sufferers with glioblastoma. Turk Neurosurg. 2010;20:117–125. doi:10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.2461-09.4

19. Cheng H-B, Yue W, Xie C, Zhang R-Y, Hu -S-S, Wang Z. IDH1 mutation is related to improved total survival in sufferers with glioblastoma: a meta-analysis. Tumour Biol. 2013;34(6):3555–3559. doi:10.1007/s13277-013-0934-5

20. Vuorinen V, Hinkka S, Färkkilä M, Jääskeläinen J. debulking or biopsy of malignant glioma in aged individuals – a randomised examine. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2003;145:5–10. doi:10.1007/s00701-002-1030-6

21. Seiz M, Krafft U, Freyschlag CF, et al. Lengthy-term adjuvant administration of temozolomide in sufferers with glioblastoma multiforme: expertise of a single establishment. J Most cancers Res Clin Oncol. 2010;136(11):1691–1695. doi:10.1007/s00432-010-0827-6

22. Malkoun N, Chargari C, Forest F, et al. Extended temozolomide for remedy of glioblastoma: preliminary scientific outcomes and prognostic worth of p53 overexpression. J Neurooncol. 2012;106(1):127–133. doi:10.1007/s11060-011-0643-0

23. Minniti G, Scaringi C, Lanzetta G, et al. Customary (60 Gy) or short-course (40 Gy) irradiation plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide for aged sufferers with glioblastoma: a propensity-matched evaluation. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2015;91:109–115. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.09.013

Related Articles

Back to top button